DRAWING FROM OBSERVATION
Measuring, Sighting, and Perspective
In the image below, are the figures measuring or sighting?
Consider using the hands of a clock to decipher the degree of an angle.
to know and practice
MSP= Measuring, Sighting, and Perspective
- PPA= Proportion, Placement, and Accuracy,
- M,S,P methods determine APP
- One must measure at all times throughout the drawing!!!!!
- If I find you not measuring, I will assume you are lazy or do not understand the concept.
- if you can see, you can measure.
- If you do not measure, you are guessing / inventing what you see (the results are a formless unstructured drawing)
- Measuring is honest and affective.
- Measuring saves you a considerable amount of time and frustration.
- Rather than drawing the same thing three times, you can measure and draw once.
- The carpenters golden rule: Measure twice, cut once
Click on the words below for concept desriptions.
MEASURING AND SIGHTING:
Video: how do draw a cylinder
The FOUR STAGES of drawing
How to Draw (step by step):
Below is an example of developing simple forms using Two Point Perspective.
Below is an example of recognizable objects (cardboard boxes, pylon cones, etc.) based on linear perspective.
Below is an example of how to draw
forms from observation using linear perspective.
Notice the student's struggle to find the angles of each form. Also, notice where the student realized
parallel lines converge (also known as orthogonal lines or converging lines) toward a vanishing point along the horizon line (eye level).
PERSPECTIVE AND DIRECT OBSERVATION
Below are stacked boxes. Can you guess where the horizon line is? Notice the direction of the angles...
Below is an example of using all
three methods (M,S,P) to decipher accuracy, placement and proportion.
Also, notice how the line weight (heavy and light pencil line) is influenced by the light source. What direction is the light source?
Symmetrical forms can be developed in one point perspective.
Below is an example of simplifying
an object into a rectangle.
Notice how this student uses two-point perspective to create an heightened illusion of 3 dimensions.
Notice the "horizon line" is placed at the top of the paper because that is where the viewer's eye level is.
CLICK BELOW FOR AN ELLIPSE TUTORIAL
how to draw
Below demonstrates how the shape
of an ellipse is based on your eye level or view point.
Where do you think the viewer's eye level is?
Below is a simple approach to drawing an ellipse. I will demonstrate in class.
The central horizontal line is known as the Major Axis Line
The central vertical line is known as the Minor Axis Line
Notice the ellipse never flattens or points. The line is a continuous curve.
The image below uses perspective to draw an ellipse. Notice that the Major Axis Line is further back in space than the images shown above.
This is because perspective is used to best represent reality; however, the methods above are less time consuming and not that noticeable of a difference.
DRAWING FROM OBSERVATION: 4 STAGES
Below are 2 examples of locating PLACEMENT (location) AND PROPORTION.
One you are satisfied with your
measurements and you have checked the placement of each form by using comparative
then begin to break down individual forms (try working large to small, and/or low to high)
Click below to view a tutorials for drawing the inner-structure of forms (important for stage 2)
Now that your forms are taking
shape, re-check your measurements by using various comparative relationships.
One can become creative when measuring; for example, try finding a negative and positive shape that have equal width. Check to see if your drawing relates.
Now that the objects are in the
right place/proportion and the "accessories" are attached (handles,
etc), focus on the final stage: line weight
Line weight can be determined by several factors:
BELOW ARE EXAMPLES OF A COMPLETED (STAGE FOUR) CONROUR LINE STILL LIFE DRAWING
Any object can begin from a a simple rectangle as demonstrated below. Each method of MSP is applied.
Below shows a step by step example of how to form an ellipse. Notice the transparency of each form. This helps to understand the overall structure of the form
TRANSPARENT FORM CONSTRUCTION: notice all forms are transparent. Practice drawing forms as if they are transparent even though you cannot see through them. This will give you a greater understanding of how the form sits in space and PPA (Proportion, Placement, and Accuracy)
Below is an example of applying
measuring, sighting, and perspective to acquire accurate proportions, and
Notice all the underlines (under-structure or blue print) used to find form and angles.
Below are Contour Line examples of organic forms.
Some examples are a based on close observation, whereas; others are clumsy and loose.